Table 1 Phenotypes of transgenic lines used to study specificity and cross-talk of the NTRC and Fd-TRX systems in the regulation of photosynthesis
Line (genetic background)Sp.Protein(s) affectedPhenotypeReferences
ntrc (WT)AtNTRC (KO)Severe impairment of growth and Chl content, high NPQ in low light, impaired reduction in chloroplast enzymes[10,11,35]
VIGS-FTRbAtFTRc (KD)Impaired chloroplast development[25]
ftrb (WT)AtFTRc (KD)Slight impairment of growth[26]
ftra1 or ftra2 (WT-Ws)AtFTRv1 (KO)
FTRv2 (KO)
Increased sensitivity to oxidative stress[22]
trxf1 (WT)AtTRXf1 (KO)No visible phenotype[40]
trxf1f2 (WT)AtTRXf1, TRXf2 (KO)Slight impairment of growth in short day[29,119]
trxm1.1 (WT)AtTRXm1 (KO)No visible phenotype, decreased activation of NADP+-MDH[30]
trxm2.1 (WT)AtTRXm2 (KO)No visible phenotype[30]
trxm4 (WT)AtTRXm4 (KO)Increased NDH-dependent CEF[46]
trxz (WT)AtTRXz (KO)Impaired plastid transcription[58]
trxm1m2 (WT)AtTRXm1,m2 (KO)No visible phenotype, but improved photosynthetic efficiency in low light phases of fluctuating light[30]
VIGS-TRXm2m4/m1 (WT or ntrc)AtTRXm1,2, and 4 (KD)Impaired leaf development, high NPQ
More severe phenotype at ntrc background
[27,41]
ntrc trxf1 (WT)AtNTRC, TRXx (KO)Very severe impairment of growth and reduction in chloroplast enzymes[28]
ntrc trxx (WT)AtNTRC, TRXx (KO)More severe phenotype than in ntrc[42]
ntrc npq4 (WT)AtNTRC, PsbS (KO)Partial recovery of ntrc phenotype (lower NPQ)[69]
ntrc Δ2cp (WT)AtNTRC (KO), 2-Cys Prx A and B (KD)Partial recovery of ntrc phenotype[79]
OE-NTRC (ntrc)AtNTRC (OE)Enhanced leaf growth, increased reductive activation of chloroplast enzymes, increased carbon fixation, decreased NPQ, increased CEF and pmf[12,33,34,70]
OE-NTRC (ndho)AtNTRC (OE)
NdhO (KO)
No increase in NDH-dependent CEF in the absence of NDH[12]
OE-NTRCSAIS (ntrc)AtOE of NTRC with inactive NTRdPartial recovery of ntrc phenotype, but exacerbated impairment of reduction in chloroplast enzymes[33,34]
OE-NTRCSGPS (ntrc)AtOE of NTRC with inactive TRXdPartial recovery of ntrc phenotype, but exacerbated impairment of reduction in chloroplast enzymes[33,34]
OE-NTRC (WT)AtNTRC (OE)Improved stress tolerance[44]
OE-NTRC (WT)AtNTRC (OE)Reduced growth of rosettes[43]
OE-TRXm (WT)NtTRXfm (OE)Inhibition of NDH-dependent CEF[46]

Abbreviations: At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Nt, Nicotiana tabacum; OE, overexpression; KD, knockdown; KO, knockout.