Table 6 Overview of protein modifications induced by reactive oxidants
OxidantMajor sites of reaction
HOAll residues
ROMost residues
ROOCys, Met, Trp, Tyr
CO3Cys, Met, Tyr, Trp, His
NO2Cys, Tyr/Trp radicals
O2Superoxide dismutase, some transition metal ions, Fe–S clusters, Tyr/Trp radicals
1O2Cys, Met, Trp, Tyr and His
HOCl/HOBrCys, Met, cystine, His, α-amino group, Lys, Trp
Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH)Cys, Met, Tyr, Trp, selenocysteine
UVB lightTrp, Tyr, cystine
Reactive aldehydesCys, Arg, Lys, His, α-amino group
HOSCNCys, selenocysteine
H2O2Cys, selenocysteine