Table 2 Muscle glycogen synthase phosphorylation sites

CAMKII, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; CK1, protein kinase casein kinase 1; CK2, protein kinase CK2; DYRK, dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase; PASK, PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain-containing protein kinase; PhK, phosphorylase kinase; PKC, protein kinase C.

Phosphorylation site
Common designation*Residue (rabbit)Residue (mouse)In vitro kinase(s)
Site 278AMPK, CAMKII, PhK, PKA, PKC
Site 2a1011CK1
Site 3a640641GSK3, PASK, DYRK
Site 3b644645GSK3, p38β
Site 3c648649GSK3
Site 4652653GSK3
Site 5656657CK2
Site 1a697698PKA, PKC
Site 1b710711PKA, CAMKII
  • * Site designations made before the protein sequence was known, but still used in many publications.

  • Residue numbers were first derived from biochemical studies of rabbit muscle enzyme. More recent studies of mouse (and human) glycogen synthase generally follow HUGO recommendations that begin with the translational start site and thus differ by one. Both usages are present in the literature.