Table 1 Effects of genetic manipulation of in vivo expression of mammalian BMP antagonists
AntagonistGenetic manipulationResulting phenotype
FollistatinHomozygous gene deletionPerinatal mortality due to respiratory difficulties, defects in multiple tissue [129]
Conditional homozygous gene deletion in ovarian granulosa cellsFewer and smaller litters [130]
FSTL-3Homozygous gene deletionChanges in glucose and fat homoeostasis, including increased insulin secretion and larger pancreatic islets with increased β-cell numbers [131]
Conditional overexpression in gonadsReduced fertility in both sexes [132]
CerberusHomozygous gene deletionWild-type [434545]
ChordinHomozygous gene deletionEmbryonically/perinatally lethal: multiple defects in patterning of head and neck tissues, and cardiovasculature [133]
GremlinHomozygous gene deletionNeonatal lethality: bilateral kidney agenesis, absence of lung septa, gross skeletal defects in the limbs [134,135]
Conditional homozygous deletion in boneDevelopmentally transient increase in bone mass [136]
Conditional overexpression in boneDecreased body weight, decreased bone density, spontaneous fractures, tooth fragility, decreased osteoblast numbers [137]
NogginHomozygous gene deletionNeonatal lethality (defects in neural tube growth, patterning and closure), gross skeletal defects in trunk and limbs; cartilage overgrowth [138]
Conditional overexpression in boneSmaller body size, reduced bone density, spontaneous fractures [139141]
SOST/SclerostinHomozygous gene deletionIncreased bone mineral density, volume and strength [142]
Conditional overexpression in boneReduced trabecular bone volume, reduced bone strength [86]
TSGHomozygous gene deletionVariable: dwarfism, poor survival, delayed ossification and reduced bone density, defects in lymphoid development [143]; developmentally transient decrease in trabecular bone volume [144]; reduced bone density due to enhanced osteoclastogenesis [145]
USAG-1Homozygous gene deletionSupernumerary teeth [146]