Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in early disease stages but a relative insulin insufficiency in later stages. Insulin, a peptide hormone, is produced in and secreted from pancreatic β-cells following elevated blood glucose levels. Upon its release, insulin induces the removal of excessive exogenous glucose from the bloodstream primarily by stimulating glucose uptake into insulin-dependent tissues as well as promoting hepatic glycogenesis. Given the increasing prevalence of T2DM worldwide, elucidating the underlying mechanisms and identifying the various players involved in the synthesis and exocytosis of insulin from β-cells is of utmost importance. This review summarizes our current understanding of the route insulin takes through the cell after its synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum as well as our knowledge of the highly elaborate network that controls insulin release from the β-cell. This network harbors potential targets for anti-diabetic drugs and is regulated by signaling cascades from several endocrine systems.
- © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society