Emerging evidence points to the involvement of specialized cells of the immune system as key drivers in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Monocytes are an essential cell component of the innate immune system that rapidly mobilize from the bone marrow to wounded tissues where they differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells and trigger an immune response. In the healthy heart a limited, but near-constant, number of resident macrophages have been detected; however, this number significantly increases during cardiac damage. Shortly after initial cardiac injury, e.g. myocardial infarction, a large number of macrophages harbouring a pro-inflammatory profile (M1) are rapidly recruited to the cardiac tissue, where they contribute to cardiac remodelling. After this initial period, resolution takes place in the wound, and the infiltrated macrophages display a predominant deactivation/pro-resolution profile (M2), promoting cardiac repair by mediating pro-fibrotic responses. In the present review we focus on the role of the immune cells, particularly in the monocyte/macrophage population, in the progression of the major cardiac pathologies myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis.
- cardiovascular disease
Abbreviations: ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; CCR2, CC chemokine receptor 2; CVD, cardiovascular disease; CX3CR, CX3C chemokine receptor; ECM, extracellular matrix; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; IL, interleukin; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Ly-6C, lymphocyte antigen 6C; M1, pro-inflammatory macrophage; M2, anti-inflammatory/deactivation macrophage; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; Mφ, macrophage(s); MI, myocardial infarction; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; Mo, monocyte(s); oxLDL, oxidized low-density lipoprotein; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TGF-β, transforming growth factor β; TLR, Toll-like receptor; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor α; VEGFR2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2
- © The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society