The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely used fish species in aquaculture and physiological research. In the present paper, we report the first cloning, 3D (three-dimensional) modelling, pharmacological characterization and tissue distribution of two melanocortin (MC) receptors in rainbow trout. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these receptors are orthologues of the human MC4 and MC5 receptors. We created 3D molecular models of these rainbow trout receptors and their human counterparts. These models suggest greater divergence between the two human receptors than between their rainbow trout counterparts. The pharmacological analyses demonstrated that ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) had surprisingly high affinity for the rainbow trout MC4 and MC5 receptors, whereas α-, β- and γ-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) had lower affinity. In second-messenger studies, the cyclic MSH analogues MTII and SHU9119 acted as potent agonist and antagonist respectively at the rainbow trout MC4 receptor, indicating that these ligands are suitable for physiological studies in rainbow trout. Interestingly, we found that the rainbow trout MC4 receptor has a natural high-affinity binding site for zinc ions (0.5 µM) indicating that zinc may play an evolutionary conserved role at this receptor. Reverse transcription PCR indicates that the rainbow trout receptors are expressed both in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system, including the telencephalon, optic tectum and hypothalamus. Overall, this analysis indicates that the rainbow trout MC4 and MC5 receptors have more in common than their mammalian counterparts, which may suggest that these two receptors have a closer evolutionary relationship than the other MC receptor subtypes.
- adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)
- hormone receptor
- melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
- rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
The nucleotide sequence data for rainbow trout MC4 and MC5 reported will appear in DDBJ, EMBL, GenBank® and GSDB Nucleotide Sequence Databases under the accession numbers AY534915 and AY534916 respectively.
Abbreviations used: 3D, three-dimensional; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; CNS, central nervous system; Dre, Danio rerio (zebrafish); Gga, Gallus gallus (domestic chicken); GPCR, G-protein-coupled receptor; Hsa, Homo sapiens (human); HS024, cyclic MSH analogue, c[acetyl-Cys3,Nle4,Arg5,D-Nal7,Cys-NH211]α-MSH-(3–11); MC, melanocortin; Mmu, Mus musculus (house mouse); MSH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone; MTII, cyclic MSH analogue, acetyl-Nle4-c[Asp5,d-Phe7,Lys10]α-MSH(4–10)-NH2; NDP-MSH, [Nle4,d-Phe7]α-MSH; Omy, Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout); PCA, principal component analysis; Rno, Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat); RT-PCR, reverse transcription PCR; Sac, Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish); SHU9119, cyclic MSH analogue, acetyl-Nle4-c[Asp5,d-Nal(2)7,Lys10]α-MSH (4–10)-NH2; TM, transmembrane; Tru, Takifugu rubripes (Japanese pufferfish).
- The Biochemical Society, London ©2004