Among the three isoenzymes of neuraminidase (Neu) or sialidase, Neu-1 has been suggested to be induced by cell activation and to be involved in IL (interleukin)-4 biosynthesis in murine T-cells. In the present study, we found that antigen-induced airway eosinophilia, a typical response dependent on Th2 (T-helper cell type 2) cytokines, as well as mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, are suppressed in Neu-1-deficient mice, thereby demonstrating the in vivo role of murine Neu-1 in regulation of Th2 cytokines. To elucidate the roles of various sialidases in human T-cell activation, we investigated their tissue distribution, gene induction and function. Neu-1 is the predominant isoenzyme at the mRNA level in most tissues and cells in both mice and humans, including T-cells. T-cells also have significant levels of Neu-3 mRNAs, albeit much lower than those of Neu-1, whereas the levels of Neu-2 mRNAs are minimal. In human T-cells, both Neu-1 and Neu-3 mRNAs are significantly induced by T-cell-receptor stimulation, as is sialidase activity against 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetylneuramic acid (a substrate for both Neu-1 and Neu-3) and the ganglioside GD1a [NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(NeuAcα2-3)Galβ1-4Glcβ1-cer] (a substrate for Neu-3, but not for Neu-1). The expression of the two sialidase genes may be under differential regulation. Western blot analysis and enzymic comparison with recombinant sialidases have revealed that Neu-3 is induced as a major isoform in activated cells. The induction of Neu-1 and Neu-3 in T-cells is unique. In human monocytes and neutrophils stimulated with various agents, the only observation of sialidase induction has been by IL-1 in neutrophils. Functionally, a major difference has been observed in Jurkat T-cell lines over-expressing Neu-1- and Neu-3. Upon T-cell receptor stimulation, IL-2, interferon-γ, IL-4 and IL-13 are induced in the Neu-1 line, whereas in the Neu-3 line the same cytokines are induced, with the exception of IL-4. Taken together, these results suggest an important immunoregulatory role for both Neu-1 and Neu-3 in humans.
- gene regulation
Abbreviations used: BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage; GD1a, NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(NeuAcα2-3)Galβ1-4Glcβ1-cer; GD1b, Galβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(NeuAcα2-8NeuAcα2-3)Galβ1-4Glcβ1-cer; GM3, NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-4Glcβ1-cer; G3PDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GT1b, NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(NeuAcα2-8NeuAcα2-3)Galβ1-4Glcβ1-cer; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; 4-MU-NANA, 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetylneuramic acid; Neu, neuraminidase; Th, T-helper cell; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.
- The Biochemical Society, London ©2004