We show that peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor II–III loop alter cardiac RyR (ryanodine receptor) channel activity in a cytoplasmic Ca2+-dependent manner. The peptides were AC (Thr-793–Ala-812 of the cardiac dihydropyridine receptor), AS (Thr-671–Leu-690 of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor), and a modified AS peptide [AS(D-R18)], with an extended helical structure. The peptides added to the cytoplasmic side of channels in lipid bilayers at ≥10 nM activated channels when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 100 nM, but either inhibited or did not affect channel activity when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 10 or 100 µM. Both activation and inhibition were independent of bilayer potential. Activation by AS, but not by AC or AS(D-R18), was reduced at peptide concentrations >1 µM in a voltage-dependent manner (at +40 mV). In control experiments, channels were not activated by the scrambled AS sequence (ASS) or skeletal II–III loop peptide (NB). Resting Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum was not altered by peptide AC, but Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release was depressed. Resting and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release were enhanced by both the native and modified AS peptides. NMR revealed (i) that the structure of peptide AS(D-R18) is not influenced by [Ca2+] and (ii) that peptide AC adopts a helical structure, particularly in the region containing positively charged residues. This is the first report of specific functional interactions between dihydropyridine receptor A region peptides and cardiac RyR ion channels in lipid bilayers.
- cardiac ryanodine receptor activity
- dihydropyridine receptor
- muscle contraction
- ryanodine receptor probe
Abbreviations used: RyR, ryanodine receptor; SR, sarcoplasmic reticulum; EC, excitation–contraction; DHPR, dihydropyridine receptor; BAPTA, bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N´,N´-tetra-acetic acid; NOESY, nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy.
- The Biochemical Society, London ©2004