Barley thioredoxin h isoforms HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 differ in temporal and spatial distribution and in kinetic properties. Target proteins of HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 were identified in mature seeds and in seeds after 72 h of germination. Improvement of the established method for identification of thioredoxin-targeted proteins based on two-dimensional electrophoresis and fluorescence labelling of thiol groups was achieved by application of a highly sensitive Cy5 maleimide dye and large-format two-dimensional gels, resulting in a 10-fold increase in the observed number of labelled protein spots. The technique also provided information about accessible thiol groups in the proteins identified in the barley seed proteome. In total, 16 different putative target proteins were identified from 26 spots using tryptic in-gel digestion, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization–time-of-flight MS and database search. HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 were shown to have similar target specificity. Barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor, previously demonstrated to be reduced by both HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2, was among the identified target proteins, confirming the suitability of the method. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, some of which are already known as target proteins of thioredoxin h, and cyclophilin known as a target protein of m-type thioredoxin were also identified. Lipid transfer protein, embryospecific protein, three chitinase isoenzymes, a single-domain glyoxalase-like protein and superoxide dismutase were novel identifications of putative target proteins, suggesting new physiological roles of thioredoxin h in barley seeds.
- barley seed proteome
- Cy5 maleimide labelling
- disulphide reduction
- target proteins
- thioredoxin h
Abbreviations used: BASI, barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor; cCBB, colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue; Cy5m, Cy5 maleimide; ESP, embryo-specific protein; EST, expressed sequence tag; G3PD, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; IPG, immobilized linear pH gradient; LTP1, lipid transfer protein 1; MALDI, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization; mBBr, monobromobimane; NTR, NADP-dependent thioredoxin reductase; TC, tentative consensus.
- The Biochemical Society, London ©2004