Understanding the cellular effects of flavonoid metabolites is important for predicting which dietary flavonoids might be most beneficial in vivo. Here we investigate the bioactivity in dermal fibroblasts of the major reported in vivo metabolites of quercetin, i.e. 3′-O-methyl quercetin, 4′-O-methyl quercetin and quercetin 7-O-β-d-glucuronide, relative to that of quercetin, in terms of their further metabolism and their resulting cytotoxic and/or cytoprotective effects in the absence and presence of oxidative stress. Uptake experiments indicate that exposure to quercetin led to the generation of two novel cellular metabolites, one characterized as a 2′-glutathionyl quercetin conjugate and another product with similar spectral characteristics but 1 mass unit lower, putatively a quinone/quinone methide. A similar product was identified in cells exposed to 3′-O-methyl quercetin, but not in the lysates of those exposed to its 4′-O-methyl counterpart, suggesting that its formation is related to oxidative metabolism. There was no uptake or metabolism of quercetin 7-O-β-d-glucuronide by fibroblasts. Formation of oxidative metabolites may explain the observed concentration-dependent toxicity of quercetin and 3′-O-methyl quercetin, whereas the formation of a 2′-glutathionyl quercetin conjugate is interpreted as a detoxification step. Both O-methylated metabolites conferred less protection than quercetin against peroxide-induced damage, and quercetin glucuronide was ineffective. The ability to modulate cellular toxicity paralleled the ability of the compounds to decrease the level of peroxide-induced caspase-3 activation. Our data suggest that the actions of quercetin and its metabolites in vivo are mediated by intracellular metabolites.
- oxidative stress
Abbreviations used: DCDHF-DA, 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; HBM, Hepes-buffered medium; LC, liquid chromatography; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl; RT, retention time.
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