Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and members of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family are involved in the regulation of muscle-specific gene expression during myogenesis. Physical interaction between these two factors is required to synergistically activate gene transcription. p300/cAMP-response-element-binding-protein ('CREB')-binding protein (CBP) interacting with transcription factors is able to increase their activity on target gene promoters. We investigated the role of p300 in regulating the TR—MEF2A complex. To this end, we mapped the regions of these proteins involved in physical interactions and we evaluated the expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in U2OS cells under control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter containing the thyroid hormone response element (TRE). Our results suggested a role of p300/CBP in mediating the transactivation effects of the TR—retenoid X receptor (RxR)—MEF2A complex. Our findings showed that the same C-terminal portion of p300 binds the N-terminal domains of both TR and MEF2A, and our in vivo studies demonstrated that TR, MEF2A and p300 form a ternary complex. Moreover, by the use of CAT assays, we demonstrated that adenovirus E1A inhibits activation of transcription by TR—RxR—MEF2A—p300 but not by TR—RxR—MEF2A. Our data suggested that p300 can bind and modulate the activity of TR—RxR—MEF2A at TRE. In addition, it is speculated that p300 might modulate the activity of the TR—RxR—MEF2A complex by recruiting a hypothetical endogenous inhibitor which may act like adenovirus E1A.
- cell cycle
- thyroid hormone receptor (TR)
Abbreviations used: α-myosin HC, α-myosin heavy chain; CAT, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; CBP, cAMP-response-element-binding-protein ('CREB')-binding protein; GST, glutathione S-transferase; MEF2, myocyte enhancer factor 2; RxR, retinoid X receptor; T3, thyroid hormone; TR, thyroid hormone receptor; TRE, thyroid hormone response element.
- The Biochemical Society, London ©2003