Endothelial cell-derived lipase (EDL) is a new member of the lipase gene family with high sequence homology with lipoprotein lipase (LPL). EDL is a phospholipase with very little triacylglycerol lipase activity. To investigate the effects of EDL on binding and uptake of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), as well as on the selective uptake of HDL-derived cholesterol esters (CEs), HepG2 cells were infected with adenovirus coding for EDL. For comparison, cells were also infected with LPL and with lacZ as a control. Both HDL binding and particle uptake were increased 1.5-fold and selective HDL-CE uptake was increased 1.8-fold in EDL-infected HepG2 cells compared with controls. The effect of LPL was less pronounced, resulting in 1.1-fold increase in particle uptake and 1.3-fold increase in selective uptake. Inhibition of the enzymic activity with tetrahydrolipstatin (THL) significantly enhanced the effect of EDL, as reflected by a 5.2-fold increase in binding, a 2.6-fold increase in particle uptake and a 1.1-fold increase in CE selective uptake compared with incubations without THL. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for the effects of THL, we analysed the abundance of heparin-releasable EDL protein from infected HepG2 cells upon incubations with THL, HDL and free (non-esterified) fatty acids (FFAs). In the presence of THL, vastly more EDL protein remained bound to the cell surface. Additionally, HDL and FFAs reduced the amount of cell-surface-bound EDL, suggesting that fatty acids that are liberated from phospholipids in HDL release EDL from the cell surface. This was substantiated further by the finding that, in contrast with EDL, the amount of cell-surface-bound enzymically inactive mutant EDL (MUT-EDL) was not reduced in the presence of HDL and foetal calf serum. The increased amount of cell-surface-bound MUT-EDL in the presence of THL suggested that the enzymic inactivity of MUT-EDL, as well as an augmenting effect of THL that is independent of its ability to inactivate the enzyme, are responsible for the increased amount of cell-surface-bound EDL in the presence of THL. Furthermore, in cells expressing MUT-EDL, binding and holoparticle uptake were markedly higher compared with cells expressing the active EDL, and could be increased further in the presence of THL. Despite 1.7-fold higher binding and 1.8-fold higher holoparticle uptake, the selective CE uptake by MUT-EDL-expressing cells was comparable with EDL-expressing cells and was even decreased 1.3-fold with THL. Experiments in CLA-1 (CD-36 and LIMPII analogous 1, the human homologue of scavenger receptor class B type I)-deficient HEK-293 cells demonstrated that EDL alone has the ability to stimulate HDL-CE selective uptake independently of CLA-1. Thus our results demonstrate that EDL mediates both HDL binding and uptake, and the selective uptake of HDL-CE, independently of lipolysis and CLA-1.
- adenoviral vector
- HEK-293 cell
- HepG2 cell
- scavenger receptor class B Type I (SR-BI)
↵1 Present address: Department of Biochemistry, Haddassah Medical School, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.
Abbreviations used: CE, cholesterol ester; CETP, CE transfer protein; CLA-1, CD-36 and LIMPII analogous 1; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; EDL, endothelial cell-derived lipase; EDL-Ad, EDL-expressing adenovirus; FCS, foetal calf serum; FFA, free fatty acid; G3PDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; hEDL, human EDL; HL, hepatic lipase; HSPG, heparan sulphate proteoglycans; LPDS, lipoprotein-deficient serum; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; MOI, multiplicity of infection; PC, phosphatidylcholine; SR-BI, scavenger receptor class B Type I; TAG, triacylglycerol; TCA, trichloroacetic acid; THL, tetrahydrolipstatin; VLDL, very-low-density lipoprotein.
- The Biochemical Society, London ©2002