Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a cytokine preferentially produced by T helper type 2 lymphocytes and active on various cell types such as T- and B-lymphocytes, mast cells and haemopoietic progenitors. The IL-9 receptor (IL-9R) belongs to the haemopoietic receptor superfamily and its signal transduction involves mainly the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. Here we studied the implication of a novel family of suppressors of cytokine signalling (called CIS, for cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein, and SOCS, for suppressor of cytokine signalling) in IL-9 signal attenuation. In BW5147 T-cell lymphoma, IL-9 induced the rapid expression of CIS, SOCS-2 and SOCS-3 with a peak after 2h of stimulation. Using IL-9R mutants, we showed that STAT activation is required for CIS/SOCS induction: CIS and SOCS-2 expression was induced either via STAT1 and/or STAT3 or via STAT5 but only STAT1 and/or STAT3 were involved in SOCS-3 expression. The effect of these three proteins on IL-9 signal transduction was assessed by transient transfection in HEK-293 cells expressing the components of the IL-9 signalling pathway and a STAT-responsive reporter construct. These experiments showed that only SOCS-3 is able to inhibit IL-9-induced signal transduction; neither CIS nor SOCS-2 exerted any effect. Stable transfection of CIS and SOCS-3 in BW5147 lymphoma cells showed that only overexpression of SOCS-3 had an inhibitory activity on STAT activation, gene induction and the anti-apoptotic activity of IL-9. By contrast, CIS failed to affect the IL-9 response.
- interleukin 9 receptor
- signal regulator
- signal transduction
- The Biochemical Society, London © 2001