The effects of mutation of key conserved active-site residues (Tyr-73, Phe-418, Trp-430, Arg-516, Asn-518, His-520 and His-563) of glucose oxidase from Penicillium amagasakiense on substrate binding were investigated. Kinetic studies on the oxidation of β-D-glucose combined with molecular modelling showed the side chain of Arg-516, which forms two hydrogen bonds with the 3-OH group of β-D-glucose, to be absolutely essential for the efficient binding of β-D-glucose. The R516K variant, whose side chain forms only one hydrogen bond with the 3-OH group of β-D-glucose, exhibits an 80-fold higher apparent Km (513 mM) but a Vmax only 70% lower (280 units/mg) than the wild type. The complete elimination of a hydrogen-bond interaction between residue 516 and the 3-OH group of β-D-glucose through the substitution R516Q effected a 120-fold increase in the apparent Km for glucose (to 733 mM) and a decrease in the Vmax to 1/30 (33 units/mg). None of the other substitutions, with the exception of variant F418A, affected the apparent Km more than 6-fold. In contrast, the removal of aromatic or bulky residues at positions 73, 418 or 430 resulted in decreases in the maximum rates of glucose oxidation to less than 1/90. Variants of the potentially catalytically active His-520 and His-563 were completely, or almost completely, inactive. Thus, of the residues forming the active site of glucose oxidase, Arg-516 is the most critical amino acid for the efficient binding of β-D-glucose by the enzyme, whereas aromatic residues at positions 73, 418 and 430 are important for the correct orientation and maximal velocity of glucose oxidation.
- active site
- kinetic studies
- molecular modelling
- site-directed mutagenesis
- The Biochemical Society, London © 2000