Biochemical Journal

Research article

Increased incidence of unsulphated and 4-sulphated residues in the chondroitin sulphate linkage region observed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography

Robert M. LAUDER, Thomas N. HUCKERBY, Ian A. NIEDUSZYNSKI

Abstract

We report the isolation, characterization and quantification of five octasaccharides, four hexasaccharides and two tetrasaccharides, derived from the chondroitin sulphate (CS) linkage region of 6-8-year-old bovine articular cartilage aggrecan, following digestion with chondroitin ABC endolyase. Using a novel high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) method, in conjunction with one- and two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy, we have identified the following basic structure for the CS linkage region of aggrecan: ∆UA(β1-3)GalNAc[0S/4S/6S](β1-4)GlcA(β1-3)GalNAc[0S/4S/6S](β1-4)GlcA(β1-3)Gal[0S/6S](β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Xyl, where ∆UA represents 4,5-unsaturated hexuronic acid, and 4S and 6S represent an O-ester sulphate group on C-4 and C-6 respectively. The octa-, hexa- and tetra-saccharide linkage region fragments were used to develop a HPAEC fingerprinting method, with detection at A232 nm, and a linear response to approx. 0.1 nmol of substance. The sulphation patterns of CS linkage regions, of up to octasaccharide in size, from articular and tracheal cartilage aggrecan were examined. The results show that in articular cartilage, for the majority (53%) of octasaccharides the 2-deoxy-2-N-acetyl amino-D-galactose (GalNAc) residues closest to the linkage region are both 6-sulphated; however, in a significant portion (34%), one or more of these GalNAc residues are unsulphated, and in 8% both are unsulphated. Approximately 10-18% of the chains have a 4-sulphated GalNAc in the first disaccharide, and 12% have a sulphated linkage region Gal residue. No evidence was found for uronic acid sulphation. These data show that there is a significant increase in the incidence of unsulphated and 4-sulphated GalNAc residues adjacent to the linkage region compared with the rest of the chain. Bovine tracheal cartilage linkage regions displayed very similar sulphation profiles to those from articular cartilage, despite the presence of a higher level of GalNAc 4-sulphation within the repeat region of the main CS chain.

  • chondroitin ABC lyase/endolyase
  • chondroitin 6-sulphate
  • HPAEC fingerprinting