In renal mesangial cells, activation of protein tyrosine kinase receptors may increase the activity of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and subsequently induce expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PGHS-2, cyclo-oxygenase-2). As examples, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were shown to transiently enhance p42/44 MAP kinase activity, which was an essential step in the induction of PGHS-2 mRNA and protein. Inhibitors of receptor kinase activities, tyrphostins AG1296 and AG1478, specifically inhibited the effects of PDGF and EGF respectively. Activation of p42/44 and p38 MAP kinases and PGHS-2 induction were also mediated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which binds to pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors. LPA stimulation was inhibited by AG1296, but not AG1478, indicating involvement of the PDGF receptor kinase in LPA-mediated signalling. This was confirmed by pertussis-toxin-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor by LPA, whereas no phosphorylation of the EGF receptor was detected. For comparison, 5-hydroxytryptamine (‘serotonin’)-mediated signalling was only partially inhibited by AG1296, and also not affected by AG1478. A strong basal AG1296-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor and a set of other proteins was observed, which by itself was not sufficient to induce p42/44 MAP kinase activation, but played an essential role not only in LPA- but also in phorbol ester-mediated activation. Taken together, the PDGF receptor, but not the EGF receptor, is involved in LPA-mediated MAP kinase activation and PGHS-2 induction in primary mesangial cells, where both protein kinase receptors are present and functionally active.
- p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase
- protein kinase C
- tyrosine phosphorylation
- The Biochemical Society, London © 2000