To clarify the molecular mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) signalling, we examined the NO-responsive proteins in cultured human endothelial cells by two-dimensional (2D) PAGE. Levels of two proteins [NO-responsive proteins (NORPs)] with different pI values responded to NO donors. One NORP (pI 5.2) appeared in response to NO, whereas another (pI 5.0) disappeared. These proteins were identified as a native form and a modified form of human glyoxalase I (Glox I; EC 18.104.22.168) by peptide mapping, microsequencing and correlation between the activity and the isoelectric shift. Glox I lost activity in response to NO, and all NO donors tested inhibited its activity in a dose-dependent manner. Activity and normal electrophoretic mobility were restored by dithiothreitol and by the removal of sources of NO from the culture medium. Glox I was selectively inactivated by NO; compounds that induce oxidative stress (H2O2, paraquat and arsenite) failed to inhibit this enzyme. Our results suggest that NO oxidatively modifies Glox I and reversibly inhibits the enzyme's activity. The inactivation of Glox I by NO was more effective than that of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), another NO-sensitive enzyme. Thus Glox I seems to be a novel NO-responsive protein that is more sensitive to NO than G3PDH.
- endothelial cell
- nitrosative stress
- post-translational modification
- two-dimensional PAGE
- The Biochemical Society, London © 1999