The influence of down-regulation of protein kinase C on glucose-induced insulin secretion was studied. A 22-24 h exposure of mouse pancreatic islets to the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA; 0.16 microM) in RPMI 1640 culture medium (8.3 mM-glucose, 0.43 mM-Ca2+) abolished TPA (0.16 microM)-induced insulin secretion and led to a potentiation of phase 1 and a decrease in phase 2 of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Thus, although the total insulin release during 40 min of perfusion with glucose (16.7 mM) (45-85 min) was unaffected, the percentage released during phase 1 (45-55 min) was increased from 12.9 +/- 1.5 (4)% in controls to 35.8 +/- 3.9 (4)% in TPA-treated islets (P less than 0.01), and the percentage released during phase 2 (65-85 min) was decreased from 63.2 +/- 3.9 (4)% to 35.3 +/- 1.4 (4)% (P less than 0.005). In contrast, TPA exposure in TCM 199 medium (5.5 mM-glucose, 1.26 mM-Ca2+) caused a total abolition of both phases 1 and 2 of glucose-induced secretion. However, inclusion of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonists adrenaline (10 microM) or clonidine (10 microM), or lowering of the Ca2+ concentration in TCM 199 during down-regulation, preserved and potentiated phase 1 of glucose-induced secretion. Furthermore, perifusion of islets in the presence of staurosporine (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, potentiated phase 1 and inhibited phase 2 of glucose-induced secretion. In addition, down-regulation of protein kinase C potentiated phase 1 and inhibited phase 2 of carbamoylcholine (100 microM)-induced insulin secretion at 3.3 mM-glucose, and abolished the potentiating effect of carbamoylcholine (100 microM) at 16.7 mM-glucose. These results substantiate a role for protein kinase C in insulin secretion, and suggest that protein kinase C inhibits phase 1 and stimulates phase 2 of both glucose-induced and carbamoylcholine-induced insulin secretion.
- © 1990 London: The Biochemical Society