Acidic phospholipids, unsaturated fatty acids and limited proteolysis mimic the activating effect of calmodulin on erythrocyte Ca2+-transport ATPase and on brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, as has been reported previously in several studies. Three different antagonists of calmodulin-induced activation of these enzymes were tested for their inhibitory potency on the stimulation produced by the other activators. Trifluoperazine and penfluridol were found to antagonize all the above mentioned types of activation of Ca2+-transport ATPase in the same concentration range. Both inhibitors also can reverse the activation of phosphodiesterase by oleic acid, phosphatidylserine and calmodulin at similar concentrations. However, in contrast with erythrocyte Ca2+-transport ATPase, activation of phosphodiesterase by limited tryptic digestion cannot be antagonized by penfluridol and trifluoperazine. Calmidazolium, formerly referred to as compound R 24571, was found to be a relatively specific inhibitor of calmodulin-induced activation of phosphodiesterase and Ca2+-transport ATPase, since antagonism of the other activators required much higher concentrations of the drug. The results suggest that the investigated drugs exert their inhibitory effect on calmodulin-regulated enzymes not solely via their binding to calmodulin but may also interfere directly with the calmodulin effector enzyme. In addition, a general mechanism of activation and inhibition of calmodulin-dependent enzymes is derived from our results.
- © 1982 London: The Biochemical Society