The night-and-day cycle governs the circadian rhythm of activity and rest in animals and humans, which is reflected in daily changes of the global gene expression pattern and metabolism, and also in the local physiology of various tissues. In this review, Michal Dudek and Qing-Jun Meng summarize current knowledge of the circadian clocks in muscle, bone, cartilage and tendon tissues, with a particular focus on the evidence of circadian rhythms in tissue physiology, their entrainment mechanisms and links with disease, and the tissue-specific clock target genes/pathways.
ATX (autotaxin) is a secreted lysophospholipase that is able to catalyse the formation of the bioactive lipid mediator LPA (lysophosphatidate) from LPC (lysophosphatidylcholine). The ATX-LPA signalling axis has an important role in both normal physiology and disease pathogenesis, including cancer. In this review, Katy Teo and Valerie Brunton provide an overview of the ATX-LPA signalling axis and discuss the current knowledge regarding its specific role in breast cancer. How this pathway may potentially be manipulated to facilitate diagnosis and treatment is also discussed.
PD (Parkinson's disease) is a complex disorder associated with neuronal loss or dysfunction caused by genetic risks, environmental factors and advanced aging. It has been reported that DJ-1 mutations render neurons sensitive to oxidative damage, which leads to the onset of familiar PD; however, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this paper, Zengqiang Yhan show how DJ-1 both interacts with RACK1 (receptor of activated C kinase 1) and increases the dimerization and protein stability of RACK1. DJ-1 and RACK1 together protect neurons from oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis; furthermore, the protein levels of DJ-1 and RACK1 decline in Parkinson's disease models.
Recent advances in the AC (adenylate cyclase)/cAMP field reveal overarching roles for the ACs. In this review, Dermot Cooper and Valentina Tabbascum summarize how ACs are multiply regulated and the steps that are put in place to ensure discrimination in their signalling. Their review encompassed scaffolding of targets and modulators by the ACs and assembling of signalling nexuses in discrete cellular domains. They also stress how these assemblies are cell-specific, context-specific and dynamic, and may be best addressed by targeted biosensors.